|The British Empire slowly rebuilds after a devastating invasion from Mars, hurriedly adapting the invaders’ technology to retain its global position.|
|1588; the Invincible Armada lands in England, deposes Elizabeth, and puts Henry Percy on the throne of England as Henry IX. A resurgent Spain puts down the Dutch Revolt (1589) and deposes Henry IV of France (1591) in favor of Charles du Mayenne, who becomes Charles XI.|
| Western (fragmenting empire with rivals), Orthodox (empire), Islamic (multipolar), Chinese (empire).
Spanish Empire (dictatorship, CR4), Swedish Empire (dictatorship, CR3), Ottoman Empire (dictatorship, CR5), Russian Empire (dictatorship, CR5), Manchu Empire (dictatorship, CR5), Nouvelle-France (oligarchy, CR3).